Seventh International Conference on Advances in Applied Science and Environmental Technology - ASET 2017
Author(s) : S. P. DUNUWEERA
Cisplatin is a commonly used anticancer drug which is the first generation of platinum-based anticancer drugs developed. The cis configuration enables the binding of the coordination complex to one or two DNA strand(s) and thereby crosslinking the DNA strands triggering the cells to die in a programmed manner. Cisplatin is administered to patients intravenously as a short-term infusion in normal saline for chemotheraputic treatment to solid malignancies. It is used to treat various types of cancers which include sarcomas and some carcinomas such as small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphomas, bladder cancer, cervical cancer, and germ cell tumours. It is found that cisplatin is particularly effective against testicular cancer with a cure rate of 10-85%. When administered into blood, cisplatin reacts with thiol containing proteins present in blood plasma thus reducing its bioavailability and increasing cytotoxicity. Cisplatin is associated with numerous side effects which include nephrotoxicity, nurotoxicity, nausea and vomiting, ototoxicity (hearing loss), electrolyte disturbance and haemolytic anemia. In order to increase the bioavailability and to reduce dosage and cytotoxic effects to healthy cells, we have encapsulated cisplatin in hollow nanoparticles of the vaterite form of calcium carbonate and studied the release kinetics of the drug in solutionds at different pH values. We found that the drug is released slowly and steadily in the pH values of cancerous cells (pH range 5.00 – 6.00) but not in the pH ranges exhibited by healthy cells (pH range 7.00 -8.00). In this communication, we describe the synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles of vaterite, their characterization, encapsulation efficiency of cisplatin in them and the slow release kinetics of the drug at various pH values. This is a way forward for safe and convenient chemotheraputic route to various cancers.