5th International E- conference on Engineering, Technology and Management - ICETM 2021
Author(s) : Ajay Singh
The global population is rising steadily and is likely to touch a level of 9.8 billion in 2050 from the existing over 7.6 billion. The quick ascent in the population has expanded the urbanization which results in the production of a huge amount of wastewater. The SDG6 of the United Nations pushes the reuse of treated wastewater to 'ensure the availability of water for all'. The use of treated wastewater for crop irrigation is a feasible option as the agriculture sector is the largest user of freshwater sources and uses over 70% of all water resources. The utilization of wastewater for crop irrigation is a common practice throughout the world. Essentially, the utilization of wastewater for irrigation is viewed as an approach to deal with the disparity between water availability and water requirement. It is particularly practiced in the arid and semiarid areas that are facing the large water scarcities. Wastewater contains basic plant supplements that enhance crop production and simultaneously it reduces the environmental threats by diminishing wastewater released into the water bodies. Wastewater irrigation has associated with some other advantages as well, for example, decreased requirement of chemical fertilizer that results in better and healthy farm produce. Most of the previous studies, however, revealed that long-term utilization of wastewater can cause environmental issues in agro-environments. For instance, it can build nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations alongside other hazardous components in the rootzone over time. It can also change the physical properties of soil, for example, hydraulic conductivity and leaching efficiency which additionally blocks the drainage of harmful salts through the soil. The harmful effects of wastewater utilization are not limited to soil and plants only but it also negatively impacts the human and other creatures. Moreover, wastewater utilizations also negatively affect the climate by releasing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide from wastewater-irrigated soils. And thus it could cause great concern for rising global warming potential.